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  • Writer's pictureIdiotTheWise

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) research. Just research for now.

Updated: Aug 31, 2022

Fuckers don't warn you about this .......

A potential harmful association was found between movement disorders and use of the antidepressants mirtazapine, vortioxetine, amoxapine, phenelzine, tryptophan, fluvoxamine, citalopram, paroxetine, duloxetine, bupropion, clomipramine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, mianserin, sertraline, venlafaxine and vilazodone. Clinicians should beware of these adverse effects and monitor early warning signs carefully. However, this observational study must be interpreted as an exploratory analysis, and these results should be refined by future epidemiological studies.

All research ripped from Web.

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an involuntary neurological movement disorder caused by the use of dopamine receptor blocking drugs that are prescribed to treat certain psychiatric or gastrointestinal conditions.

Long-term use of these drugs may produce biochemical abnormalities in the area of the brain known as the striatum. The reasons that some people who take these drugs may get tardive dyskinesia, and some people do not, is unknown. Tardive dystonia is a more severe form of tardive dyskinesia in which slower twisting movements of the neck and trunk muscles are prominent.

Signs & Symptoms

Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by involuntary and abnormal movements of the jaw, lips and tongue. Typical symptoms include facial grimacing, sticking out the tongue, sucking or fish-like movements of the mouth. In some cases, the arms and/or legs may also be affected by involuntary rapid, jerking movements (chorea), or slow, writhing movements (athetosis). Symptoms of tardive dystonia include slower, twisting movements of larger muscles of the neck and trunk as well as the face.


Tardive dyskinesia is caused by long-term use of a class of drugs known as neuroleptics. Neuroleptic drugs are often prescribed for management of certain mental, neurological, or gastrointestinal disorders. Metoclopramide and prochlorperazine are drugs used for chronic gastrointestinal conditions that may cause tardive dyskinesia. Neuroleptic drugs block dopamine receptors in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter which is a chemical that helps brain cells to communicate.

Although most cases occur after a person has taken these drugs for several years, some cases may occur with shorter use of neuroleptic drugs.

Affected Populations

Tardive dyskinesia affects individuals who have been taking neuroleptic drugs for a long period of time. A high percentage of schizophrenic people who have spent long periods of time taking these drugs have a high risk of developing TD. However, neuroleptic drugs are also prescribed for depression, some digestive disorders, and other neurologic illnesses.



Tardive dyskinesias (TDs) are involuntary movements of the tongue, lips, face, trunk, and extremities that occur in patients treated with long-term dopaminergic antagonist medications. Although they are associated with the use of neuroleptics, TDs apparently existed before the development of these agents. People with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders are especially vulnerable to the development of TDs after exposure to conventional neuroleptics, anticholinergics, toxins, substances of abuse, and other agents.

TDs are most common in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder who have been treated with antipsychotic medication for long periods, but they occasionally occur in other patients as well.

For example, people with fetal alcohol syndrome, other developmental disabilities, and other brain disorders are vulnerable to the development of TDs, even after receiving only 1 dose of the causative agent.

TD has been associated with polymorphisms of both the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene, [1] TaqI A and TaqI B and associated haplotypes, [2] and of the dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) gene, [1, 3] the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene, and the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene.

Dysfunction of the dopamine transporter has been hypothesized to play a role in the development of TD. However, Lafuente et al did not find evidence of involvement of a polymorphism with a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTD) in the DAT gene (SLC6A3) in dyskinesias induced by antipsychotics. [4] Thus, further research is needed to investigate the role of the dopamine transporter in the development and maintenance of TD.

Galecki et al reported the association of a polymorphism of the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene and TD. [5]



Withdrawal dyskinesias may also occur as treatment with dopamine antagonists is decreased or withdrawn. They are often refractory to all therapeutic modalities. In addition to the prototypic orofacial dyskinesia, tardive syndromes also include a spectrum of hyperkinesias occurring during or after prolonged treatment with dopamine antagonists

Dopamine system

Although the pathophysiology of TD is not well understood, it is hypothesized that central dopamine blockade plays a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. It is also hypothesized that acute movement disorders result, in part, from the blockade of dopamine receptors by dopamine antagonists.


Antidepressants-induced movement disorders are rare and imperfectly known adverse drug reactions. The risk may differ between different antidepressants and antidepressants’ classes. The objective of this study was to assess the putative association of each antidepressant and antidepressants’ classes with movement disorders.


Side Effects of Effexor XR: What You Need to Know


If you have certain mental health conditions, your doctor might suggest Effexor XR (venlafaxine) as a treatment option for you.

Effexor XR is a prescription medication that’s used in adults to treat:

  • major depressive disorder

  • generalized anxiety disorder

  • social anxiety disorder

  • panic disorder

Effexor XR helps relieve the symptoms of these conditions. The drug comes as a capsule that you take by mouth once daily. If Effexor XR works for you, your doctor will likely recommend that you take it long term.

Effexor XR is an extended-release (XR) drug, which means it slowly releases the active ingredient over a prolonged period of time.

What are the more common side effects of Effexor XR?

Some people may experience mild or serious side effects during their Effexor XR treatment. Examples of Effexor XR’s commonly reported side effects include:

  • nausea

  • feeling tired

  • sweating*

  • constipation

  • sexual side effects

What are the mild side effects of Effexor XR?

Effexor XR may cause mild side effects in some people. Examples of mild side effects that have been reported with Effexor XR include:

  • nausea

  • feeling tired

  • sweating*

  • constipation

  • sexual side effects

  • dry mouth

  • unusual dreams

  • loss of appetite

  • headache

  • weight gain or weight loss*

What are the serious side effects of Effexor XR?

In rare cases, some people may develop serious side effects from taking Effexor XR. Serious side effects that have been reported with Effexor XR include:

  • suicidal thoughts or behaviors*

  • serotonin syndrome

  • high blood pressure†

  • unusual bleeding

  • eye problems, such as closed-angle glaucoma

  • mania or hypomania

  • allergic reaction†‡

  • low sodium in your blood

  • seizures

  • lung problems, such as pneumonia

  • high cholesterol

If you develop serious side effects while taking Effexor XR, call your doctor right away. If the side effects seem life threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency, immediately call 999 or your local emergency number.


Research to be continued here:



8 Triggers That Make Restless Legs Worse Does it seem like your restless legs get worse after you take a certain medication or are under stress? Become aware of your restless legs triggers to relax. By Regina Boyle Wheeler Medically Reviewed by Farrokh Sohrabi, MD It never fails — just as you crawl into bed, your restless legs start acting up again.

Symptoms — which include pain and tingly, creepy-crawly sensations — usually strike at night or when you’re relaxing, so sleep problems are one of the chief complaints in people with restless legs syndrome, or RLS. Although RLS is a neurological problem, certain environmental and external factors have been known to exacerbate symptoms. Avoiding these common restless legs triggers may help calm your jittery limbs so you can get the rest you need.

Identifying Restless Legs Triggers

Medications may be most effective for severe RLS, but identifying and avoiding things that aggravate your symptoms can also help, especially in mild or moderate cases. Here are some common restless legs triggers, plus tips to help you overcome them and get some sleep:

  • Stress and anxiety. Rachel Salas, MD, an assistant professor of neurology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, says that stress and anxiety are big restless legs triggers. Stress reduction techniques like deep breathing or yoga may help.

  • Nicotine. If you need another reason to stop smoking, calming your restless legs is a good one. Talk with your doctor if you think you need help quitting.

  • Alcohol. Many people with RLS report that drinking can lead to more restless legs symptoms. Although alcohol can help people fall asleep quickly, it interferes with the quality of sleep and can make sleep apnea worse , says Alon Avidan, MD, MPH, an associate professor of neurology and director of the Sleep Disorders Clinic at UCLA. Try omitting alcohol to see whether your restless legs improve and whether you feel more rested in the morning.

  • Vigorous exercise. Getting moderate exercise during the day can help ease restlessness at night. But vigorous exercise, especially close to bedtime, can have the opposite effect in some people.

  • Medications. A number of medications can make RLS worse. In particular, anti-nausea drugs and sedating antihistamines (like Benadryl) block the brain’s dopamine receptors, causing restless legs symptoms. Antidepressants that increase serotonin and antipsychotic medications can also aggravate the condition. Let your doctor know if your restless legs symptoms worsen after you take a new medication. A change in dosage or to a different medication may do the trick.

  • Caffeine. Because caffeine is a stimulant, it can interfere with sleep if it’s consumed too close to bedtime. It’s long been on the list of restless legs triggers, but Dr. Salas says recent research shows it may not be that big of a problem. In fact, she says, it may be beneficial in some people. Try cutting out coffee, tea, colas, sports drinks, and even chocolate to see if your symptoms improve or worsen.

Other Restless Legs Triggers

Other health conditions can also cause restless legs. This is what’s called secondary restless legs syndrome:


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  • Pregnancy. According to Dr. Avidan, about 20 percent of pregnant women report restless legs symptoms. This is more likely in the last three months of pregnancy, and iron deficiency is usually the culprit. If symptoms crop up when you’re expecting, your doctor will probably test the level of iron in your blood and prescribe iron supplements if it’s too low. The good news is that your restless legs symptoms will probably go away soon after you have your baby.

  • Medical conditions. Restless legs symptoms are also seen in some people with kidney failure and diabetes. Treating these conditions will often calm the restless legs.

The Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation suggests using a sleep diary to pinpoint your personal triggers and gauge the severity of your symptoms. Always tell your doctor if your symptoms get noticeably worse. Link to explore:

THE LATEST IN RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME What Is Restless Legs Syndrome? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention By Barbara KeanJanuary 26, 2021

New Study Suggests an Imbalance of Gut Bacteria Might Be Linked to Restless Leg Syndrome Experts say treating the overgrowth of harmful bacteria might help people with the sleep disorder. By Markham HeidJune 10, 2019

Restless Legs Syndrome Treatment By Joseph Bennington-CastroJune 29, 2016 8 Yoga Poses for Your Restless Legs Breathing and stretching isn't just good for your brain - use yoga to tame your restless legs syndrome. ByJanuary 24, 2014

7 Ways to Relieve RLS Symptoms Want help calming the telltale tingling, burning, itching, creeping, crawling, tugging, or pulling of RLS? Here are seven strategies to try for relief... By Mary Elizabeth DallasMarch 19, 2013

How to Talk to Others About RLS Your first instinct might be to hide your RLS from others, but telling key people in your life can make it easier for you to manage the condition when... By Vanessa CaceresMarch 19, 2013

Managing RLS at Work Managing RLS at work can present unique daytime challenges. These tips can help you find RLS relief on the job. By Vanessa CaceresMarch 19, 2013

A Healthy Diet for RLS RLS is linked to certain nutritional deficiencies as well as being overweight. A healthy diet can be an important part of RLS relief. By Mary Elizabeth DallasMarch 19, 2013

Using Yoga to Battle Restless Legs Syndrome When restless legs syndrome keeps you up all night, yoga is a treatment option that helps both your mind and body relax. Find out how nightly poses helps... By Diana RodriguezFebruary 27, 2013

Turn to Exercise as a Treatment for Restless Legs Syndrome When restless legs syndrome strikes, get moving to find relief. Find out how one man uses regular, moderate exercise to help keep symptoms at bay

Work in progress.

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